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MDC ATMS GLOSSARY OF ITS TERMS

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Agent  
An STMF entity that receives commands and The process whereby a message is associated with  
ANSI  
American National Standards Institute, a The process whereby an access policy determines  
Application Services 
The services collectively offered by the upper four layers of the OSI model. Bandwidth Indicates the transmission-carrying capacity of a  
Applications Programmer Interface (API) 
A set of calling conventions defining how a service for transmitting information on a channel, equal is invoked through a software package.  
ASCII 
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A 7-bit binary code representation of letters, numbers and special characters. It is universally supported in computer data transfer.  
ASN.1  
Abstract Syntax Notation One, a formal language used in conjunction with SNMP. for describing information to be processed by computer, an ISO standard. 
Asynchronous 
Data transmission in which the actual data is often interchanged with bits per second (bps), preceded by a start bit and followed by a stop bit which is technically inaccurate but widely since the time between transmitted characters accepted for slower bit rates. 
ATC 
Advanced Transportation Controller, transportation field control equipment standards. FHWA, NEMA, and the ATC Joint Standards Committee are spearheading the development effort. 
ATC Joint Committee  
A public/private advisory group composed of ITS experts that guide the development of the ATC. 
Authentication  
The process whereby a message is associated with a particular originating entity. 
Authorization 
The process whereby an access policy determines whether an entity is allowed to perform an operation. 
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Bandwidth 
Indicates the transmission-carrying capacity of a channel. The range of frequencies that can be used for transmitting information on a channel, equal to the difference in Hertz (Hz) between the highest and lowest frequencies available on that channel. 
Basic Encoding Rules (BER) 
A series of procedures for describing transfer syntax of types specified with ASN.1. Transfer syntax is the actual representation of octets to be sent from the network entity to another. Must be used in conjunction with SNMP. 
Baud Rate 
The number of discrete signal events per second occurring on a communications channel. It is often interchanged with bits per second (bps), which is technically inaccurate but widely accepted for slower bit rates. 
bit 
Binary digit. A single computer signal consisting of a value of 0 or 1, off or on. 
Bit Error Rate (BER)  
The number of bits transmitted incorrectly. In digital applications it is the ration of bits received in error or bits sent. 
bps  
Bits per second, transmission rate (speed) of data. 
Bridge  
A means of connecting two networks as the data link layer. 
Broadcast Address  
An address referring to all stations on a medium. 
BYTE and UBYTE  
A group of bits acted upon as a group, which may have a readable ASCII value as a letter or number or some other coded meaning to the computer. It is commonly used to refer to 8-bit groups. Octet sized (8 bits) integers where BYTE is signed (range -128 to 127) and UBYTE is unsigned (range 0 to 255). 
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(AB3418) California Assembly Bill No. 3418 
A legislative bill that requires all new or upgraded traffic signal controllers installed in California after January 1, 1996, to incorporate a standard communications protocol. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has published this specification for developers. 
Carrier  
A continuous frequency capable of being either modulated or impressed with another information-carrying signal. Carriers are generated and maintained by modems via the transmission lines of the telephone companies. 
Certification  
An official recognition awarded by an accredited industry forum asserting that the product meets the stated requirements for conformity to the standards.  
Changeable Message Sign  
Changeable Message Sign (this terms has 2 common dentitions: a.) in NTCIP Objects for Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) [Formally known as TS 3.6], it defines Drum signs, and b.) certain public agencies use this term to describe VMS signs (see NTCIP 1203 for a definition)  
Checksum  
An arithmetic sum used to verify data integrity.  
CHOICE  
As defined by ITU-T X.680, Abstract Syntax Notation One Specification of Basic Notation, a choice type is defined by referencing a list of distinct types; each value of the choice type is derived from the value of an object or data element.  
Compliance  
A determination that an implementation or component subsystem is in strict adherence to (1) usage of standards, that is, conformant, and also (2) in strict adherence to local or project unique requirements. Note that (1) and (2) may be in conflict—in such cases, (2) prevails to achieve a determination of compliance.  
Component  
The closely related functions of a system. A component produces an information product.  
Conformance  
A determination that an implementation is in strict adherence to the specific requirements for usage of the features of a standard.  
Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC)  
Cyclical Redundancy Check. An error-detection technique consisting of a cyclic algorithm performed on each “block” of data at the sending and receiving end of the transmission. As each block is received, the CRC value is checked against the CRC value sent along with the block.  
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Data  
Information before it is interpreted.  
Data Dictionary  
An organized listing of all data elements (and their characteristics) that are essential to the system, with precise, definitions so that both the user and the system developer will have a common understanding of input, output, components of storage and intermediate calculations.  
Data Element  
An atomic element of information that is defined within a transit business area. As defined by the IEEE P1489/D0.0.5 (July 14, 1997), a data element is a syntactically formal representation of some information of interest (such as a fact, proposition, and observation.) about some entity of interest, for example, a person, place, process, property, object, concept, association, state, event. May also be referred to as a data object or object.  
Data Flow  
The description of information movement and the transforms that are applied as the data moves from input to output.  
Data Interface  
The connection between two or more components through which information, for example, a data element or message is passed.  
Data Link Layer  
Layer 2 of the OSI Reference Model; it is responsible for transmission, framing and error control over a single communications link.  
Datagram  
A self-contained unit of data transmitted independently of other datagrams.  
DTE  
Data Terminal Equipment. The device that is the originator or destination of the data sent by a modem. (An EIA/TIA − 232 − E signal)  
DTR  
Data Terminal Ready. A signal generated by most modems indicating a connection between the DTE (computer) and the modem. When DTR is high, the computer is connected. (An EIA/TIA − 232 − E signal)  
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EIA/TIA-232-E  
Electronic Industries Association/ Telecommunications Industries Association specification that defines the serial port on a PC.  
End-to-End Services  
The services collectively offered by the lower three layers of the OSI model.  
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Flow Control  
A mechanism that compensates for differences in the flow of data to and output from a modem or computer. Either hardware or software can be used for this control to prevent data loss. Hardware flow control using the modem makes use of a buffer to store data to be sent and data received. Flow control is necessary if the communications port is locked at a higher rate than the connection rate.  
FSK modem interface  
Typical method of traffic control system communications, phone line, or twisted wire based.  
Full Duplex  
Signal flow in both directions at the same time. It is sometimes used to refer to the suppression of on-line local echo and allowing the remote system to provide a remote echo.  
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Gateway  
A router and translator between protocols; also, (imprecise usage) an entity responsible for complex topology mappings.  
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Half Duplex  
Signal flow in both directions, but only one way at a time. It is sometimes used to refer to activation of local echo that causes a copy of sent data to be displayed on the sending display.  
HDLC  
Generalized network approach: high-level data link control  
Highway Advisory Radio (HAR)  
Low-powered AM or FM stations that broadcast brief messages to standard car radios from small transmitters placed near highways.  
Host  
(Internet usage) an end system.  
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IETF  
Internet Engineering Task Force, a group chartered by the IAB to develop certain RFCs for standardization.  
Indirect Routing  
The process of sending a network message to a router for forwarding.  
Infrastructure  
This refers to all fixed components to a transportation system such as rights of way, tracks, equipment, stations, parking/park-n-ride lots, signalization equipment and maintenance facilities.  
Informative  
Non-prescriptive information that provides context to this standard.  
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)  
A major national initiative to improve information, communication and control technologies in order to improve the efficiency of surface transportation. Technological innovations that apply direct communications and information processing to improve the efficiency and safety of surface transportation systems. These include on-board navigation for vehicles, emergency communications systems, electronic toll/fare collections, and traffic management centers.  
Intermediate System  
A network device performing functions from the lower three layers of the OSI model. Intermediate systems are commonly thought of as routing data for end systems.  
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA)  
Federal authorizing legislation for highways, transit and other surface transportation programs. Established intermodal objectives for national transportation system to achieve efficiency, air quality and environmental quality.  
Intermodalism  
The use and coordination of more than one mode of transportation.  
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)  
An international standards organization. ANSI is the primary interface to ISO within the United States. Often thought to be International Standards Organization because of the usage ISO for short.  
Internet  
A large collection of connected networks, primarily in the United States, running the Internet suite of protocols. Sometimes referred to as the DARPA Internet, NSF/DARPA, Internet, or the Federal Research Internet.  
lAB  
Internet Activities Board, group in charge of authorizing RFCs for the purpose of standardizing Internet operations.  
IANA  
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, group in charge of assigning Internet addresses.  
Internet Protocol (IP)  
The network protocol offering a connectionless mode network service in the Internet suite of protocols.  
IP address  
A 32-bit quantity used to represent a point of attachment in an internet. An Internet Protocol Address.  
Internet suite of protocols  
A collection of computer-communication protocols originally developed under DARPA sponsorship.  
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Joint Committee on the NTCIP  
A public/private advisory group composed of ITS experts that guide the development of the NTCIP.  
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Local Area Network (LAN)  
Any one of a number of technologies providing high speed, low-latency transfer and being limited in geographic size.  
LONG and ULONG  
Four byte (32 bits) integers where LONG is signed (range −2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647) and ULONG is unsigned (range 0 to 4,294,967,295).  
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Management Information Base (MIB)  
A collection of data elements or objects defined using Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) that can be accessed via a network management protocol. (See Structure of Management Information.)  
Manager  
The entity that sends commands to entries and processes their responses.  
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)  
The largest amount of user data that can be sent in a single frame on a particular medium.  
Message  
A grouping of data elements that encapsulate an idea, concept or thing, or convey information. A basic message encapsulates an idea, concept or thing, and a compound message embeds one or more basic messages and other data elements to convey information.  
Message Set Catalog  
A list of messages and the functional requirements needed to support the exchange of information among components within a system, or between systems.  
Message Set Template  
The format used to transmit messages among components or between systems.  
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Network  
A collection of subnetworks connected by intermediate systems and populated by end systems.  
Network Identifier  
That portion of an IP address corresponding to a network in an internet.  
Network Layer  
That portion of an OSI system responsible for data transfer across the network, independent of both the media comprising the underlying subnetworks and the topology of those subnetworks.  
Network management  
The technology used to manage a network. Usually referring to the management of networking specific devices such as routers. In the networking specific devices such as routers. In the context of the NTCIP, refers to all devices including end systems that are present on the network or inter network.  
Normative  
Prescriptive requirements for the use of this standard.  
NTCIP  
National Transportation Communication for ITS Protocol, communications protocol under development. FHWA, NEMA and the NTCIP Joint Standards Committee are spearheading the development effort.  
NTCIP Home Page  
Site on the World Wide Web where one may obtain the latest NTCIP information. The address  
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Object  
A representation of a data element that is managed. The definition of a data element or message including its name, object identifier, description and syntax. 
OBJECT IDENTIFIER  
A unique name (identifier) that is associated with each type of data element in a MIB. This is a defined ASN.1 type. “A value (distinguishable from other such values) that is associated with an object identifier type. A simple type whose distinguished values are the set of all object identifiers allocated in accordance with the rules of [ASN.1].” The number or address by which a data element may be located on the NTCIP or TCIP object tree.  
OBJECT-TYPE  
The macro defined in RFC-1212 that is the format used to define SNMP objects or data elements. In STMF, the OBJECT-TYPE macro consists of five fields: Object Name, Syntax, Description, Access, Status. 
OCTET  
An ordered sequence of eight bits.  
OER  
Octet Encoding Rules, a variation BER developed for use on low bandwidth communications links. OER is based on Octet boundaries (in opposite to PER, which is based on bit boundaries).  
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)  
An international effort to facilitate communications among computers of different manufacture and technology.  
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Parity  
A simple error detection method used in both communications and computer memory checking to determine character validity.  
PER  
Packed Encoding Rules, a variation of BER developed for use on low bandwidth communications links, specified in ISO 8825. The original version of NTCIP Simple Transportation Management Framework (NTCIP 1101) [Formally known as TS 3.2] used this term for a transportation industry-specific set of encoding rules that has since been renamed to OER (as defined in NTCIP 1102).  
Physical Address  
The address of a physical interface.  
Physical Layer  
That portion of an OSI system responsible for the electro-mechanical interface to the communications media.  
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)  
Transmission of data between two and only two stations on a Point-to-Point link.  
Point-to-MultiPoint Protocol (PMPP)  
Transmission of data between multiple stations or nodes. That is, one primary and multiple secondaries.  
Port Number  
Identifies an application-entry to a transport service in the Internet suite of protocols. The concept of ports are often present in OSI literature, however, ports are not Internet standard, but exists as local network conventions only.  
Presentation Layer  
That portion of an OSI system responsible for adding structure to the units of data that are exchanged.  
Primary  
A node on a link that controls the polling to and from secondary nodes on that link and controls the communications from the secondary nodes on that link.  
Profile  
The defined protocol at each of the seven OSI layers. A standard that combines one or more base standards and selects appropriate options or functions within them. (A base standard may be a “standard” or another profile that references standards).  
Protocol  
A formal set of conventions governing the format and relative timing of message exchange between two communicating processes. A system of rules and procedures governing communications between two devices.  
Protocol Data Unit (PDU)  
A part of transmitted data that contains information used by the protocol at a particular layer in the OSI stack.  
Proxy Agent 
A device that receives and responds to network management commands on behalf of another entity.  
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RFC 
Request for Comments, the name given to real time device monitoring correspondence and standards by the IAB. 
Router 
A level 3 (network layer) relay 
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Secondary 
A node on a link that is controlled by the primary node in terms of polling and communications 
SEQUENCE and SEQUENCE OF 
An ordered record or array (respectively) of data elements or objects. “Types defined by referencing an ordered list of types (some of which may be declared to be optional)” 
Service Primitive 
An artifact modeling how a service is requested or accepted by a user 
Session Layer  
That portion of an OSI system responsible for Socket adding control mechanisms to the data exchange. 
SHORT and USHORT 
Double octet sized (16 bits) integers where SHORT is signed (range -32,768 to 32,767) and TCIP USHORT is unsigned (range 0 to 65,535).  
Simple Transportation Management Framework (STMF) 
Simple Transportation Management Framework describes the organization of the information within devices and the methods of retrieving or modifying any information within the device. STMF also explains how to generate and utilize computer readable information organization descriptions.  
Simple Transportation Management Protocol (STMP) 
Simple Transportation Management Protocol, a variation of SNMP developed by NEMA to RFC address low bandwidth communication links and real time device monitoring  
SMI 
Structure of Management Information, a definition of how to create management data element or objects and a hierarchical (tree like) definition of nodes where management objects or data elements will be attached for unique identification. 
SNMP 
Simple Network Management Protocol, a communication protocol developed by IETF, used for configuration and monitoring of network devices. 
SNMPv2  
Simple Network Management Protocol version 2, recent modification of SNMP that is undergoing evaluation by the Internet community.  
Socket 
A pairing of IP address and a port number  
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TCIP 
Transit Communications Interface Protocol − A subset of NTCIP protocols that is specific to the Simple Transportation Management Framework transit community. 
TCIP/IP 
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (protocol addressing both the network and transport layers) 
TLV  
Tag, Length, Value − the form used in SNMP encoding. 
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 
The transport protocol offering a connection-oriented transport service in the Internet suite of protocols. 
Transport Layer  
That portion of an OSI system responsible for reliability and multiplexing of data transfer across the network (over and above that provided by the network layer) to the level required by the application. 
Transport Level  
The combination of protocols, at the transport layer and below, used in a given context. 
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User data  
Conceptually, the part of a protocol data unit used to transparently communicate information between the users of the protocol. Prefixed by the protocol control information. 
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)  
The transport protocol offering a connectionless mode transport service in the Internet suite of protocols. 
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Wide Area Network (WAN)  
Any one of a number of technologies that provide geographically distant transfer. 
 
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